Primary Prevention:
  • Hypercholesterolemia:
    All adults over the age of 18 are recommended to have an annual lipoprotein analysis. This includes total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride measurement.

  • Hypertension:
    All adults over the age of 18 are recommended to check their blood pressure every one to two years.

  • Colon cancer:
    All adults over the age of 50 are recommended to have occult blood stool screening and a digital rectal exam annually. In addition, colonoscopy every ten years with flexible sigmoidoscopy every three years is recommended.

  • Prostate cancer:
    All adults over the age of 50 are recommended to have digital rectal exam and PSA test every year.

  • Breast cancer:
    All women over the age of 18 are recommended to do self-breast exam monthly. Annual breast exam should start at age 40. All women should have a baseline mammogram at age 40. Between age 40 and 50, mammogram should be done every one to two years. Over age 50, on a yearly basis.

  • Cervical cancer:
    All women over the age of 18 should have base line PAP-smear test and then, every one to three years.

Secondary Prevention:
  • Diabetes:
    Patients with diabetes should be monitored for Hemoglobin A1C level, microscopic proteinurea and blood pressure every 3 months. Patients should be screened for peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy on an annual basis. Also, cholesterol measurements should be evaluated at least, annually.

  • Coronary Artery Disease:
    Patients with CAD, PVD and Stroke should be monitored and treated for Hypertension, High cholesterol, and Diabetes on a 3 months basis. Therapeutic management includes diet, exercise and medications when appropriate.

  • Obesity:
    Due to high risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes, obese patients should be treated with diet and medications when feasible, and possibly with surgery.




Stephen Warshafsky Internal Medicine, LLP